LoRa utilizes the linear spread spectrum modulation CSS (chirp spread spectrum) technology, which is a mature modulation technology with low power consumption and robust anti-interference characteristics and the modulation technology is widely used in military communications systems.

LoRa PC Software is an executable file. Just unzip the file provided by GW Instek and execute the executable file directly. For other operation details, please refer to the product information page ("How to Use C-1200" in www.gwinstek.com/en-global/Use_C1200/index/) " A video provides detailed steps.
The FEI, Frequency Error Indicator of C-1200 can measure the error offset of the LoRa device operating frequency, so that the most appropriate crystal oscillator material can be selected and the frequency can be adjusted to the most accurate frequency point to avoid greater frequency error, which leads to a reduced sensitivity or even the loss of the packet due to the change of the ambient temperature when it is applied in practical applications. It is utilized to improve the communications reliability of the LoRa device.
The TOA (Time On Air) calculated by the data sheet formula is a theoretical value by combining all set parameters such as SF (spreading factor), CR (coding rate), BW (bandwidth), preamble length, Payload length, etc. The TOA measured by C-1200 is the actual measured time from transmission to receiving. It can be used to compare with the theoretical value to check whether the overall data transmission is correct.
C-1200 in the Spectrum Mode can conduct the US FCC 15.209 and FCC 15.247 communications regulations to ensure that the product meets the European and American communications regulations.
Yes, select FSK from the “select mode” on the top of the PC control program.
First, connect the high-precision power supply PPH-1503 of GW Instek to the PC by LAN.  Select MP Test in the Select Mode on top of the PC control program of C-1200. The Power Consumption test field will appear. Set PPH- 1503’s IP address to conduct current measurement.
Yes. Select the country frequency bandwidth from the Band Select at the upper left of the PC control program of C-1200 and then select the test frequency point from RF Frequency at the bottom of the program.
One TX port and three TRX ports of C-1200 are RF ports switched by internal switches. Only one TX port or one TRX port will be active at the same time. Users must select one of the channels first while operating. If users select TRX port, the channel must be set to TX or RX mode. When the test is finished, switch to another channel for testing. In the pipeline production line using robotic arms and automatic control (ATE), the waiting time of the DUT and the investment costs of the test equipment can be greatly reduced and the production efficiency can be greatly improved.
C-1201 is a C-1200 expansion adapter box, which is used to connect C-1200 and DUT. It receives commands from PC and converts to user's commands which directly control the DUT for non-signaling test (NST) and the test time is faster.  Signaling test is performed by that C-1200 transmits LoRa protocol RF signal to DUT, after the connection between C-1200 and DUT is established, then tests are conducted. So the test time is longer.
C-1201 is connected to the C-1200 via a USB cable (C-1201 standard accessory). C-1201 has three common interfaces including UART, SPI and I2C control bus. By the bus control interfaces used by the LoRa device, connect the C-1201 control line to the control line of the LoRa device. At this time, the control commands of the LoRa device can be edited in the PC control program. The commands are transmitted via C-1200 and the USB cable to C-1201 and the LoRa device is then directly controlled by the control bus. This kind of NST does not go through the LoRa signal transmission; it directly controls the hardware that improves the test efficiency and speed so as to increase the productivity.
Connecting the antenna or RF cable with C-1200's TRX port to conduct test with the DUT is called signaling test.
For non-signaling tests, please refer to the above FAQ.
The lowest output power of C-1200 TX port reaches -148dBm, which can meet the requirement of LoRa's lowest Sensitivity test. The other three TRX ports have a lowest output power of -100dBm. For lower Sensitivity, users can add an attenuator and select the corresponding attenuation value from 0 to 50dB via the EXT Attenuator of the PC control program. By so doing, users can obtain correct Sensitivity test results.
C-1200 primarily tests LoRa end node and does not support LoRaWAN testing.
Yes, LAN is the only connection interface for C-1200 and PC.
Yes. Users can activate the program and practice the software operation function offline.